GOAT FARMING, ITS MANAGEMENT & PROBLEMS IN SINDH-PAKISTAN
By: Farzana Panhwar (Mrs.)About the Author
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IntroductionIn the year 1996 the total goat population in Pakistan was 41166,000 heads, while in Sindh it was 9,734,000 heads.In the year 1999-00 total goat population in the country was 47426,ooo heads, while the male population, one year and above was 6010,000 heads, the female one year and above was 25755,000 heads and young stock less than one year was 15661,000 heads.In the year 1999-00, in Pakistan the gross production for milk from goat was 31,804,000 tonnes, while goat milk consumption was 25,566,000 tonnes.In the year 1999-00 in Pakistan the goat meat production was 218,000 tonnes/million, goat skin production was 23.3 million No., goat hair production was 18,000 tonnes.In the year 1999-00 in Pakistan the total fodder production was 2,64,900 hectares out of which in Sindh was 365,700 hectares. The total fodder production in Pakistan was 22.7 per hectare in tonnes, out of which in Sindh ,fodder crop production was 25.0 per hectares in tonnes.
GeneralGoat raising have an advantage of early maturity, smaller gestation period, prolifically (twins, triplets, quadruplets are common), short inter-location interval at the same time showing wide range of adaptability.
The following table show goat population for milk and meat production.
Pakistan-goat population (1000 head).
Annual Ave. Trien-nium ending 1979
Annual Ave. Trien-nium ending 1982
Compound Annual Growth Rate
Pakistan goat population
Worlds goat population
Pakistan milking goat population
World milking goat population
Pakistan goat meat population
World goat meat population
Some of the meat, milk and fibre goats are:
Beetal, Jamunapari, Malabari (milk), Sirohi, black Bengal, Assam local, Barbari, Shinghari (meat), Chegu Changthangi, (Pashmina) and Deccani (Mohair).
Goat husbandry ManagementThe management of goat husbandry divided in to five groups.
1 - Intensive system.
The goat are grouped according to sex and age wise and these groups are separately confined to a shed, in the shed owner supply nutrition packages to the breed, the rate of death is highest under this system.
2 - Semi-Intensive system.
In this system animals are kept under confinement for a limited time, but animals have freedom to move freely in a restricted area, this system is economically costly due to need of capital investment in sheds, fencing and management.
3 - Tethering.
In this case animals are kept on public ground, having enough vegetation. Goat are not segregated on the basis of age and sex.
4 - Semi-extensive system.
In this system, animals are grazed on public pasture land in the night they are kept in the fenced shelter.
5 - Extensive system.
During dry summer season, when grasses and wild plant disappears and water becomes scarce, many herdsmen join together and migrate to the area, in search of pasture and water.
Indigenous knowledge of goat farming.
In rural area of Sindh, we have large agricultural fields, where the goats are allowed to certain areas, where they graze. The farmers of Sindh, use indigenous knowledge, like they spread goat dropping in the field, apply flood irrigation, to the field, when goat dropping absorbed water, they start smelling, this smell keeps the goats away from a particular field, which farmer wants to save from the movement and destruction by goats. This way goats dropping keeps the goats away from growing fields.
Problems face by goat industry. These are as under:
Low quality of breeding stock and limited supply of genetically improved goat breeds.
Poor nutrition, feeding, housing, herd management and health program and other husbandry practices for the small holder production system.
Inadequate or ineffective extension services due to lack of trained goat technicians.
Lack of organized marketing channel, price control system.
Lack of transport facilities to handle live goat and goat milk.
Lack of technically trained personnel in integrated goat farming system.
About the author:Farzana Panhwar (Mrs.)157-C, Unit No.2, Latifabad, Hyderabad (Sindh), Pakistan.E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgFax: 92-21-5830826 and 92-221-860410