Thursday, August 23, 2007


The various ways and means of using trained volunteer service to boost the economy and control cultural diversity to bring sustainable development in the universe. A Pakistan view.


To provide better and latest knowledge of technologies to the volunteers, so their role in the communities should enhanced and utilise to control un-justice, poverty, cultural diversity and globalization in the universe.


In the year 2000 the Pakistan total population was 137.51 million. The Pakistan is based on agricultural economy. Its 97% population line in the rural areas. Their activities are agriculture, horticulture, fishes forestry and its related field. In 1981 Pakistan literacy rate is 26.2, while urban area has 53.3% and rural area 7.3%

Since the illiteracy rate is very high in the rural areas, which paralyse the government for its development activities. But volunteers and abilities if they are trained with the latest knowledge, they can play a great role to provide sustainable development and bring peace in the nature.


In the year 2000 in Pakistan the total population was 137.510 million.

Sindh is divided into 5 division, 21 districts, 72 - subdivision, 88 Tehsil, 5,875 villages, one metropolitan 3-corporate municipals, 35 commercial municipal, 116 committee towns, 8 cantonment towns and 162 total urban areas.

Problems of rural areas.

n High fertility rate, high mortality rate with low expectation of life at birth, nutritional deficiencies, with fragile health.
n Rudimentary education with high degree of illiteracy.
n Extensive prevalence of child labour.
n Male domination in which inferior women’s status.
n Lacking of middle class people.
n Low quality of seeds available for field crops.
n Lacking of middle class people.
n Low quality of seeds available for field crops including vegetables, fruits, pulses and oil seeds.
n Due to traditional methods used for insemination brings poor quality of live stock production.
n Un-scientific way of breeding used in fisheries result low out-put.
n Due to most of land destroyed by salinity, water logging, marshes, riverain forest and other forest started destruction rather than development in this sector.

The volunteer should be trained in the following environmental impact assessment programme:

Part A Environmental ‘characteristics’ and ‘conditions’ (vertically in the matrix)

Part B Project actions (horizontally in the matrix)
a physical and chemical characteristics
modificcation of regime.
Exotic flora or fauna introduction.
Mineral resources.
Biological controls.
Construction material.
Modification of habitat.
Alteration of ground cover.
Land form.
Alteration of ground-water hydrology.
Force field and background radiation.
Alternation of drainage.
Unique physical features.
River control and flow modification.
Weather modification.
Surface or paving.
Noise and vibration.
land transformation and construction
Snow, ice and permafrost.
Industrial sites and buildings.
Quality (gases, particles).
Climate (micro macro).
Highways and bridges.
Roads and trails.
Cables and lifts.
Transmission lines, pipelines and corridors.
Deposition (sedimentation, precipitation).
Barriers including fencing.
Channel dredging and straightening.
Sorption (ion exchange, complexing).
Channel revetments.
Compaction and setting.
Stability (slides, slumps).
Dams and impoundments.
Stress-strain (earthquake).
Piers, seawalls, marinas and sea terminals.
Air movements.
Offshore structures.
biological conditions
Recreational structures.
Blasting and drilling.
Cut and fill.
Tunnels and underground structures.
resource extraction
Blasting and drilling.
Surface excavation.
Aquatic plants.
Subsurface excavation and retoring.
Endangered species.
Well drilling and fluid removal.
Clear cutting and other lumbering.
Commercial fishing and hunting.
Land animals including reptiles.
Fish and shellfish.
Ranching and grazing.
Benthic organisms.
Feed lots.
Energy generation.
Endangered species.
Mineral processing.
Chemical industry.
cultural factors
Textile industry.
land use.
Automobile and aircraft.
Wilderness and open spaces.
Oil refining.
Pulp and paper.
Product storage.
land alteration
Erosion control and terracing.
Mine scaling and waste control.
Mining and quarrying.
Strip mining rehabilitation.
Harbour dredging.
Marsh fill and drainage.
resource renewal.
Camping and Hiking.
Wildlife stocking and management.
Ground water recharge.
Fertilisation application.
aesthetics and human interest.
Waste recycling.
Seenic views and vistas.
changes in traffic.
Wilderness qualities.
Open space qualities.
Landscape design.
Unique physical features.
Parks and reserves.
River and canal traffic.
Rare and unique species or ecosystem.
Pleasure boating.
Historical or archaeological sites and objects.
Presence of misfits.
Cables and lifts.
cultural status.
Cultural patterns (life style).
Health and safety.
waste emplacement and treatment
Ocean dumping.
Population density.
man-made facilities and activities.
Emplacement of tailing, spoil and overburden.
Underground storage.
Transportation network (movement, access).
Junk disposal.
Utility networks.
Oil well flooding.
Waste disposal.
Deep well emplacement.
Cooling water discharge.
Municipal waste discharge including spray irrigation.
ecologicl relationships such as:
Liquid effluent discharge.
Salinization of water resources.
Stabilisation and oxidation ponds.
Septic tanks, commercial and domestic.
Disease-insect vectors.
Stack and exhaust emission.
Food chains.
Spent lubricants.
Salinization of surficial material.
chemical treatment.
Brush encroachment.
Chemical de-icing of highways, etc.

Chemical stabilisation of soil.

Weed control.

Insect control (pesticides).



Spills and leaks.

Operational failure.


Volunteers can boost food industry in the following ways:

n Wheat flour and other fine products, also bran used for animal feed.

n Make flour enriched with vitamin and B complex developed infant and child feed.

n Rice used for milling/husking.

n Maize used to develop starch and related products.

n Sugar can used for sugar and Gur extraction, Alcohol and molasses, cattle feed, paper and chipboard development.

n Oil-seeds to extract cooking oil, oil-cake used as animal feed and soap making.

n Fruit and vegetables used for fresh consumption, juice and syrup making, jam, jelly, marmalade, can fruit and vegetable and pickles making also preserved and dried fruit and vegetables used for long run.

n Meat-used for processing, packaging and frozen meat used for long run.

n Milk - pasteurised/packet milk, extraction of cream, butter, cheese, yoghurt, lasi making.

n Fish-Fish preservation, drying, freezing and canning process:

¨ Fish oil for food products, medicine, scape, paints, varnishes, oil-cloth.
¨ Fish meal for feeding livestock.
¨ Fish meal for fertilisation making.
¨ Fish protein concentrates for human consumption.
¨ Fish meal for poultry.

Non-food industry.

n Fibre - cotton used for textile industry, also cotton seeds are used for preparation of cooking oil and cotton-oil-cake used for animal feed.
n Jute is used for bag, sacks and containers making.
n Animal hides and skins are used in leather industry, foot-ware, bags and suitcases.
n Forest products are used in:

¨ Swan log, plywood, etc.
¨ Paper, paperboard, plywood.
¨ Wood furniture.
¨ Charcoal and firewood.
¨ Resins, gum, lacks, oil.
¨ Match industry packaging material, cork, etc.

Income generation activities.

The volunteers can raise rapidly the output and income by using above technologies, improved cottage industries, latest farming methods, also helping in improving basic health, clean drinking water, education. This way volunteers can boost, social, moral and economic conditions of the country.


Professional volunteers helps the people to understand the pre-eminently social character of human ecological relations, cultural ecology and the relationship between human beings and their environment in the nature.

Volunteer helps to understand ecological context, pollutant pathways, changes in the environment, its effects, monitoring system, its costs and control methods, and international aspects.

Farm sectors.

Volunteers helps the farmer for providing new and better methods of agricultural productivity, having improve the nutritional standards, which earn more foreign exchange, also to develop other sectors of industries, which will boost the country economy.

Public sector, development in the fields of agriculture, industries, education, science and technology, health and nutrition, rural development, culture, sport, tourism manpower and employment, women development, population-welfare, social welfare, research and planning, environment poverty alleviation, physical planning and housing, transport and communication, fisheries and forestry.

Volunteers are trained to understand the functions of some information services and find out the way to minimising difficulties of information uses.

Features of the World of Information
Users’ Difficulties
Information Service/System Capability
Generator and user4s of information are usually located a distance apart.
Awareness of information generated difficult.
Current awareness services, extension services, publications and publicity.
Comulation of information into vast quantities.
Overabundance need for selection.
Indexing, classification and storage systems, reference services.
Accelerated growth of Information. Increasing rate of obsolescence.
Obtaining information quickly to specific problem area.
Reviews, state of the art and trend reports, digests, information analysis and evaluation.
Interdisciplinary nature of information scatter.
Can specialise only in restricted subject field.
Indexing techniques to inter-link subjects, Information analysis and enquiry service.
Multiplicity of languages.
Can be familiar with only one or a few languages.
Translation Service.
Wide range of standards and modes of presentation of ideas.
Only some standards and patterns are convenient to some users.
Selection and presentation or repackaging according to user’s needs.
Wide variation in quality and reliability.
Difficulties and inadequacy of time for evaluating and selecting.
Information and Data analysis and evaluation.
Delays in final stage of Document provision.
Difficulty in obtaining copies of required Document.
Obtaining copies of documents, reprographic facilities.

Volunteers are trained and capable for comparison of characteristics of information services in a network. As describe under:

University Information Service
Industry Information Service
Govt. Information Service
Usually located in one geographic location. Physically people and facilities are in one place.
If decentralised can have several divisions in different locations.
Can be regional.
Education (Conserve, transmit, analyse disseminate) advance learning, emphasis on education, with broad back ground so that individual is useful to University and society.
Profit, Training Programmes available to develop skills to make individual more useful to organisation. Such programmes may be restricted.
Students (Pre and Post Doctoral) education, researches, Free contact with people who are available for consultation.
No students, researchers, production technologists, marketing and other experts.
No. students Researchers, Industry, farmers.
Experts, large libraries, Computing Centres.
Narrower group of experts more restricted libraries.
Some experts. Large libraries.
Available to world.
Usually restricted to internal use but can include patients and publications written for profit motives.
At one time, there would have been difference in source of findings. This is hard to generalise now. government funding support University and industry, industrial funding supports industry and government.Funding.



The trained volunteers with latest knowledge should be engaged in all walks of life, they not only provide employed by people in various development activities but they also helps the nation to provide international net work and bring employment opportunities, development activities boost export, import and bring peace in the world.

Methodology of workshop.

n Presentation by the help of mass-media and charts.
n Note down the related input from the audience.
n Try to locate hurdle, back-logs, and problems.
n Establish a future plan and strategies, after discussion of above points.

The USE OF trained volunteer services, to boost the economy, to control cultural diversity and bring sustainable development .(A Pakistan view.)

The USE OF trained volunteer services, to boost the economy, to control cultural diversity and bring sustainable development .(A Pakistan view.)


To provide better and latest knowledge of technologies to the volunteers, so their role in the communities should enhanced and utilise to control un-justice, poverty, cultural diversity and globalization in the universe.

Trained volunteers with the latest knowledge, can play a great role in sustainable development and bring peace in the nature.

The volunteer should be trained in the following environmental impact assessment programme(Chart)a physical and chemical characteristics . land transformation and construction. biological conditions resource extraction processing. cultural factors. land alteration resource .renewal changes in traffic. waste emplacement and treatment. ecologicl relationships. and chemical treatment

Volunteers Should be trained in agriculture ,horticulture. food , fruits ,vegetable, fish, forestry fresh and processing industry ,non-food processing industries. improved cottage industries. volunteers can raise rapidly the output and income by using above technologies,


Professional volunteers helps the people to understand the pre-eminently social character of human ecological relations, cultural ecology and the relationship between human beings and their environment in the nature. context, pollutant pathways, changes in the environment, its effects, monitoring system, its costs and control methods, and international aspects. Volunteers are trained to understand the functions of some information services and find out the way to minimising difficulties of information uses.( Chart)

Trained volunteer services.

Volunteers helps the farmer for providing new and better methods of agricultural productivity, Public sector, development in the fields of agriculture, industries, education, science and technology, health and nutrition, rural development, culture, sport, tourism manpower and employment, women development, population-welfare, social welfare, research and planning, environment poverty alleviation, physical planning and housing, transport and communication, fisheries and forestr


The trained volunteers with latest knowledge should be engaged in all sectors of life ,they developed international net work and provide employment opportunities and development activities. They helps in boosting up the export, import, bring sustainable development and peace in the world.

Methodology of workshop.

n Presentation by the help of mass-media and charts.
n Note down the related input from the audience.
n Try to locate hurdle, back-logs, and problems.
n Establish a future plan and strategies, after discussion of above points.


The use of biotechnology in Sindh . Pakistan to improve Agriculture, its growth and bring Sustainable Development in the country.

The use of biotechnology in Sindh . Pakistan to improve Agriculture, its growth and bring Sustainable Development in the country.


Sindh has Sub-tropical climate , which is extremely suitable for large number of crops, but the farmers of Sindh are illiterate and they raise crops just by copying each other and do not take a risk with their investment. Due to this practice the local market is full with conventional fruits and vegetable raised here namely : mangoes, guava, grapefruit, lemon, lime, sapodilla, cherimoya, dates, lychee, papaya, melons and zizyphus mauritania. The net result is a few varieties of each fruit growing over short season and a glut of one or another fruit crops, throughout the year, and consequently low prices. Due to mono-culture all diseases, infection , and viral attacks are frequent, due to cover large area under same crop, and its control become difficult.

The solution lies in diversification of crops, with extension of harvest season and new cultivars, especially evolved by breeding , tissue culture , genetic engineering and bio-technology . These would be extremely beneficial, to bring sustainability locally and globally.
Agriculture is the backbone of our economy as well as of our foreign trade. To strengthen the economy of Pakistan, one should first of all take necessary steps to reform the agricultural system of the country. This can only be done by educating the farmers in the latest method of cultivation ,new developments in agricultural inputs and day to day changes in Agricultural Research arena.

If we improve the agricultural sector in Sindh, and improve its economic growth and conditions, this alone can bring the sustainability locally and globally.


Pakistan lies between longitudes of 60°-70°East and latitudes 40°N to 37°N. It is located in the north -western sector of the South Asia. On its north it has boundary with China, and the Central Asian State in west Afghanistan and Iran. In the south -west is the Arabian sea and Persian Gulf. The south and south -east are connected with India. On north -east and east have Jammu and Kashmir States.

The population of Pakistan in the year 2003 was 149.1 millions. Projected population in the year 2025 will be 249.9 millions and by the year 2050 the population will be 348.6 millions. It cover an area of 307.375 square miles, while it contains 485 population per square miles (Ref. A)

In the year 2000 Pakistan had population 137.8 millions, it increases at the rate of 2.8%. Its projected population by the year 2025 will be 232.9 millions. Its annual renewable freshwater per capita available for the year 1990 was 3,838 cubic meters, while for the year 2025 it will be 1,643 cubic meters, while 74% population from the year 1990-95 having access to safe water. For the same period only 47% population was having adequate sanitation. The crop land available per capita in the year 1990 was 0.17 hectares, which in the year 2025 will be 0.07 hectares. In the year 1992 the CO² emissions per capita was 0.6 metric tonnes (Ref. B)

In the year 2003-2004 the actual shortage of river and canal water in Sindh has resulted in drop water table of aquifers from 15 feet to 50 feet. According to Government of Sindh’ s estimates around 1.4 million people and more than 5.6 million livestock heads have been adversely affected due to drought condition, harsh climate, and pollution caused by above conditions.

In the year 1998 the extent of water-logging and salinity at the depth of 0-5 feet or 152 cm water table depth in Sindh affected 3796000 hectares, while in Pakistan it was 4942000 hectares but water table at 0-10 feet or 305 cm water table depth for the same year total in Pakistan was 9120000 hectares out of which in Sindh it was 5198000 hectares. (Ref. C)

In the year 1998 the extent of saline/ sodic soil total land in Pakistan was 6173500 hectares out of which Sindh had 2109600 hectares. For he same year this saline/sodic land in Pakistan, were 2803800 hectares in which Sindh has 1151000 hectares. (Ref. .D)

In the year 1997-98 , the total area under afforestation in Pakistan was 21400 , out of which Sindh have 2800 hectares (Ref. .D)


The Province of Sindh lies between 23°40' to 28° 30'N and 66°40’ to 71°,30 E .The region has sub-tropical climate receiving 100-550 chill units and 3700-4500 heat units. Soil is sandy loam having pH over 7.8.

The major crops growing in .Pakistan are rice, sugarcane, wheat ,gram ,maize ,accounting for 35.9% of agricultural value added crops. Area under cotton crop has declined by 10.3%. The minor crops are bajra ,jawar ,sesames ,rape ,mustard , tobacco and pulses like, moong and masoor. The production of wheat in the year 2002-2003 was 1.92 million tonnes. The wheat crop shows poor production due to high temperature stress at the grain formation stage, which shrivel the grain and reduces its weight causes attack of aphids in large wheat growing area. The production of rice for the same year was 4.5 million tonnes, the production of sugarcane was 52.1 million tonnes. Cotton production was 10.2 million bales, it suffered badly due to short supply of canal irrigation water. There is also attack of new and serious pest and diseases including viral diseases The production of maize in 1999-00 was 1565800 tonnes Grain production was 582100 tonnes.

The production of potatoes and onion was 1996 thousand tonnes. The growth rate of major crop was 5.8% while the growth rate for minor crops was 0.4%. The live stock sector shows growth rate of 2.9% .Due to effect of draught on availability of fodder and feed, results in to decline animal production. The growth rate of fisheries was 16.6%/ (Ref. E)

In the year 1990-00 the total cropping area in Pakistan was 22.76 million hectares, there distribution was.
• Food grains- wheat, rice, jowar ,maize ,bajra, and barley about 56% of total cropping area.
• Cash crops- sugarcane, cotton, tobacco, sugar beet and jute was 18% of total cropping area.
• Pulses- Gram, mung ,mash, masoor, mattar, other pulses was 6% of total cropping area.
• Oil-Seeds- Rape-seed, mustard seed, sesamum, ground nut, linseed, castor seed and other oil seed was 3% of the total cropping area.
• Vegetables- Covering an area of 1% of the total cropping area.
• Condiments- Citrus, mangoes, banana, apple, guava, peach, pear, plum, grapes, pomegranate, dates, almonds, all kinds of melons, strawberries, cherries and sapodilla was 3% of the total cropping area.
• Others- Cover about 12% of the total cropping area.
• (Ref. Provincial Agricultural Department)

The above statistic show that in future we have a great difficulty to feed the growing population needs. The productivity of land is effected due to urbanisation, green revolution, modernisation, industrialisation and human and natural activities. Which could not be able to provide enough feeding material unless we have to use biotechnology, advance technologies and genetic engineering, which helps in producing feed with better quality, better appearance, enhanced nutritional values, better processing abilities, long shelf life, produce crops having ability of insects, pest and diseases resistance, high yielding, dwarf varieties, more yield per acre, less time for maturation, better colour, better taste and flavour, resistance to stress, drought and salinity.

Rice crop (Scientific name : Oryza Sativa.L)

In the year 1990-00 the total area 2333800 hectares in Pakistan was under rice cultivation, out of which Sindh contains 685600 hectares. For the same year its production in Pakistan was 4486700 tonnes out of which Sindh production was 1910600 tonnes ( Ref. D)


The rice varieties Shadab Showa-92, and Sarchar are developed recently accordingly Sindh climate but following varieties are developed under special conditions.

* Summer Paddies: TTB. As.35, TTB.As.48;TTB.As.86;D1.3;D1.4; SLO.16; MTU.9; MTU;15,CO,13 and PTB,10

• Flood resistant varieties- Kmj, Ar, 108-1, Km,Ar.G.353-148; Kmg,Ar,G,614-25B,BR-14 and BR-15; FR-13A,FR,43-B;MTU,16; PTB,15,Dudhalchi and Jaisuria.
• Salt resistant and drought tolerance varieties- Sr-26-B and Orissa.
• Early maturing varieties- Ch.2-mature in 85 days, Ch.45- mature in 105 days. Ch.62-mature in 110 days and ch.63-mature in 110 days (Ref.. F)

*Rice with enhance nutritional values.

Bio-technologically rice varieties are developed, which have Vitamin-A in it. Also scientist have re-programmed rice, so it have 5-10% soluble prolamines, while human digestive system absorbs 70-80% insoluble gluten, this re-programmed rice have more protein in it, and it can easily be absorb by the intestine.

The future lies are using newly developed varieties , which give high production per acres, less immune to attacks of infection, diseases, insects, pest and are able to adjust under harsh climatic conditions.

Maize. (Scientific name Zea mays Linn)

In the year 1999-00 the total area under maize production in Pakistan was 944600 hectares, while in Sindh it was 10100 hectares. For the same year its production in Pakistan was 1565800 tonnes, while in Sindh its production was 5300 tonnes (Ref. D)

Its varieties runs in to large numbers. Its varieties produce grain colour predominately either white, red or yellow. In Sindh the yellow varieties is more popular. The varieties T.41 and T.4.111 are considered as a good varieties. The future lies to brings more high yielding hybrids of flint maize according to our climatic conditions.

Genetically evolved maize.

Maize genetically modified for tolerance to the European corn borer (Ostrinia Nubilalis) main insect pest for maize. The genetic modified maize contain bacterial gene, which confers resistance to European corn borer, also contains select -able marker gene for tolerance to herbicide glufosinate ammonium and antibiotic ampicillin. The ampicillin resistance gene has bacterial regulatory sequences and not express in maize. The herbicide resistance gene product was not present in freshly harvested grain from the genetic modified maize.

The insecticidal activity was detected in the fresh grain, but disappeared after drying, and dehydration of the grain. The grain bacterial regulatory sequences on the gene could allow the gene to become function if it were transferred from the genetic modified maize to a bacterium, and allow many copy of gene to be generated in a cell, which could lead high level of production of gene product. The chances of such a transfer occurring in very low but infinite , so it is safe to eat.
Since the insects and pest are the biggest source of damage maize crop in Sindh. This genetically evolved maize crops have a great future.

Potato ( Scientific name : Solanum tuberosum.L)

In the year 1999-00 the area under potato was 97900 hectares in Pakistan out of which Sindh have only 0700 hectares. For the same year the production of potatoes in Pakistan was 1426300 tonnes, out of which Sindh production of potato was 7400 tonnes (Ref. .D)


• Early varieties- Up-to- Date, Magnum-Bonum, Military special, Great Scot, Hybrid 19, Kheera, Gola.
• Mid season varieties- Darjeeling Red Round (Surkha), Italian white, Hybrid-9.
• Late season varieties- Phalwa (Patna White)
• Sweet Potato varieties- White Star, C.L.44 (Ref. .F)

Genetically evolved potatoes.

Genetically evolved potatoes name is New leaf. This varieties can be kept for longer time without sprouting. While other varieties produced by this technology showing resistance to insecticide, pesticide, fungicide and nematocide resistance.

The genetically evolved potatoes have great market potential due to non- sprouting characteristic and more nutritional values.


In the year 1990-00 there were 218000 hectares in Pakistan was under vegetable out of which 34700 hectares were in Sindh. for the same year vegetable production in Pakistan was 2889300 tonnes, while in Sindh it was 211900 hectares (Ref.. D)


The genetically developed varieties are resistance to three different types of viruses and its name is Freedom II ,The newly variety of Cook-neck squash called ZW-20. These varieties have great future in Sindh , because having better keeping quality and long shelf life.

Soy Bean.( Scientific name : Glycine max )

In Pakistan the soy bean comes under Non -Traditional Oil-seeds. In the year 1999-00 there were about 1364000 hectares in Pakistan , out of which 123000 hectares comes under Sindh. For the same year its production in Pakistan was 1537000 tonnes, out of which Sindh produced 131000 tonnes ( Ref. .D)


It has varieties resistant to bacterial diseases (Xanhomonas Phaseoli Sojense ); downy mildew (Perono spora spp.); root-rot (Macrophomina phaseoli ); and leaf Spot (Cerospora Sojina ). (Ref. .F)

The varieties resistance to herbicide glufosinate, are used to control weeds. The genetically evolved soybean have better nutritional abilities, which is developed by the transfer of Brazilian protein nut to the soy bean. Some people show allergy to Brazillian nut. Scientist still continued their research to control these allergies. It is possible that in future varieties not showing any allergic problem are developed . The genetically soy bean have great potential in Sindh.

Canola or Rape seed ( Scientific name : Brassica Species )

In the year 1999-00 in Pakistan 333400 hectares were under rape seed crop, out of which Sindh have 92700 hectares. For the same year in Pakistan its production have 281700 tonnes, out of which Sindh ’s production was 72500 tonnes; while in Pakistan it yield was 845 Kg per hectare, while in Sindh its was is 782 Kg per hectare. (Ref. .D)


The genetically evolved canola varieties have resistance to herbicide glufosinate, which can control weeds, and varieties having resistance to herbicide gluphosate, which also can control weeds. Some varieties have sterility, this helps in facilitating plant breeding. The canola variety Laurical, has altered oil composition. This variety produce high amount of Lauric acid, and can boost soap market The genetically evolved canola with high protein is used a source of animal feed industry. The Brassica species normally contain toxic glycosinolate and Euric Acid. But genetically evolved varieties are free from this toxicity. Genetically evolved canola variety Topas is used in manufacturing process and production of bio-degradable plastic.

Pakistan is spending huge foreign exchange to import canola oil. This crop can bring revolution and remove the important burden on agriculture ,make the country self- sufficient in canola-oil and it production.

Alfalfa or Lucerne ( Scientific name : Medicago Sativa )
In the year 1999-00 in Pakistan 2649900 hectares were under fodder crop , out of which Sindh had 365700 hectares. For the same year its production in Pakistan was 60215100 tonnes, out of which Sindh had 9131100 tonnes. In Pakistan fodder yield was 22700 tonnes per hectare , of which Sindh ‘s yield was 25000 tonnes per hectares (Ref. D)


Its varieties Kandahar or Quetta, Persian or Arabian and Meerut. The cold resistant variety’s name is Lucerne No-9. The genetically evolved varieties give yield up to 36 tonnes . of green forage per acre in 8-10 cutting annually. The genetically evolved varieties under work are; varieties resistant to bacterial diseases (Xanthomonas alfalfae); common leaf spot (Pseudopeziza medicaginea ); crown wart (Physoderma alfalfae ); downy mildew (Peronospora Aestivalis ); dry rot (Macrophoomina Phaseoli) and rust (Uromyces Striatus ) , (Ref. F)

New varieties.

The genetically evolved varieties is programmed by adding nif A gene, this gene is responsible to enhance the activity of enzyme, which help in nitrogen fixation activities. since the genetically evolved strain produce more alfalfa forage in per acre than its respective parent strain, that is why genetically evolved alfalfa have very good future in Sindh.

Palm oil.

In Sindh only very few farmers have attempted grow palm oil, but it is used to extract fatty easters, glycerol mostly used in soap, candle, lubricants, plastic-idser for PVC, cosmetics industries. It has a great future in Sindh but in very limited area, near the coast in Jati Shah Bander and Ghorabari Talukas. . Palm oil can be used as a substitute of coca butter.

Tomato ( Scientific name : Lycopersicum esculentum )

In the year 1999-00 tomato in Pakistan was grown on 29300 hectares out of which Sindh cover an area of 6300 hectares. For the same year its production in Pakistan was 311600 tonnes, while in Sindh its production was 32000 tonnes. Its yield in Pakistan was 10600 tonnes per hectare in Sindh , its yield was 5100 tonnes per hectares (Ref. .D)

Genetically improved tomatoes varieties.

• The genetically improve varieties produce fruits, having controlled and reduced pectin degrading enzyme, but its nutritional values are similar to that of conventionally bred counter part, but this variety have longer shelf life.

• The tomato ( Cherry variety ) having altered ripening process. It can keep long as fresh for long time . It helps in fresh market value.
• The tomato variety name Flvr Saver, has delayed ripening gene. This variety has large demand in fresh vegetable market.
• Tomato variety have altered pectin enzyme activities and produce thick skin, having better processing qualities is under process.
• Tomato Lycopersicon Chilense has drought resistant qualities.
• The tomato variety Lycopersicon Chimielewskii. Shows improved colour intensity, with more sugar content in it.
• The tomato variety Lycopersicon Esculenturn Cerasi Fomr, can stand high temperature and humidity.
• The tomato variety Lycopersicon Hirsuturm and for high altitute growning abilities is resistant to many diseases.
• The tomato variety Lycopersicon Parviflorium has better colour with increase soluble solid concentration.
• Tomato variety Lycopersicorn Pennellilii, shows drought resistance abilities, enhances Vitamin C contents and has more sugar content in it.
• The tomato variety Lycopersicon Peruvianum has pest resistant abilities with rich source of Vitamin C.
• Tomato variety Lycopersicon Pimpinellifollum shows resistance to many diseases, has low acidity but high concentration of Vitamin C in it.

All Fruit Crops.

In the year 1999-00 the area under all fruit crops in Pakistan was 639000 hectares, while in Sindh it was 101200 hectares, for the same year all fruits production in Pakistan was 6152600 tonnes, while in Sindh all fruit production was 587100 tonnes (Ref. .D)

All Fruit Crops in Sindh .Pakistan.

All genetically evolved fruit developed showing better qualities, long shelf-life, enhance nutritional values, attractive colour, uniform size, mature uniformly, long-harvest season, dwarf rootstock, rootstock resistant to adverse environmental condition, having pest resistant ability especially fruit fly and insect attacks, disease resistant against- powdery mildew, anthracnose various viral and bacterial infections, better physiological feature against malformation, internal fruit breakdown and softening of fruits, all fruits have early maturation, with good food processing qualities. Varieties resistant to salinity, acidity and drought conditions, produce high yield. Dwarf cultivars, produce more yield per acres and have better mechanical harvesting qualities.

The new cultivars in fruit crops, if introduced and propagated, will bring revolution in agriculture sector.

Citrus Fruits .

It has many varieties of which the following cover maximum are :
• Grape fruit (Citrus Paradisi Macfi )
• Lemon ( Citrus limonia Osbeck )
• Lime ( Citrus Aurantifolia Swingle )

In the year 1999-00 in Pakistan had 1958000 hectares were under citrus crop out of which Sindh had 4100 hectares. For the same year citrus production in Pakistan was 1960800 tonnes , out of which Sindh produce 34600 tonnes citrus fruit. (Ref. D)

Future varieties.(Grape Fruit)

Deeper Pink or Red Marsh or Thompson seedless, Ruby or Ruby Red ( mutation of Thompson seedless ), Red Blush, Shamber, Star Ruby,Ray Ruby, Flame seedless, Rio-Red or Real Red, Nelruby (Nelspruit Ruby), Foster, Chironia, Royal, Puma, Poorman’s Oraange, , Golden special, Wheeny, Melogold, and Pomelit (Shaddock- Hybrid 202) .(Ref. .I)

Lemon future varieties.

Eureka, Femminello, Hermosa, Limoni, Lisbon, Primofiori, Speciale, Verna, Meyor and Villa Franka Geneva . (Ref. I)

Lime future Varieties.

Keghazi, Nimbo, Mitha Nimbo and Thaitti lime or Persian lime Merican lime, Rangpur lime. (Ref. .I)

Mango ( Scientific Name : Mangifera Indica )

In the year 1999-00 mango in Pakistan mangoes was produced on 92100 hectare out of which Sindh covered 41700 hectares of land . For the same year mango production in Pakistan was 918600 tonnes, while in Sindh production was 306500 tonnes of mangoes. (Ref. D)

Local Mangoes varieties.

Present varieties grown in Sindh are:
Langra, Dusehri, Alphanso ,Bombay, Summer Bahisht, Rampur, Fajri, Kalan, Chaunsa, Anwar Retoul, Sindhri, Banganpali, Swarnareca, Neelum, Fazli and Zafran. (Ref. .J)

Future Mangoes Varieties.

Apple, Peach, Haden, Bourbon, Espada , Itamaraca, Tomy Atkins, Keitt, Tucpentine, No-11, Amarpali, Malika, Chancleto, Paloma , Hilaza, Mariquiteno, Sufaida, Albania, Papaya, Corazon, Kent , Biscochuclo, Reina de Mexico, Filipino ,combodiana, Irwin, Eidon, Glenn, Palmer, Ruby, Van Dyke, Carrrie, Valencia Pride, jubilee, Lippens, Parvin, Sensation, Springfields , Sunset, Smith, FairChild, Brooks, Madome, Fracnis, Julie , Peter, Amelie, Manzanillo, Caroboa, Manila, Rapoza, Philot, Maomi-K, Ah-Ping, Paris No-1, Harders Gorvia, Tele Nene, Chulucanas, Chato de Ica, Rosado de Ica, Carne de Ica Rosica, Cariolle de Carne, Cariollo rosado, President, De Chupar, Co-pachito, Criollo, Smith , Golek, Arumanis, Mangalagi, Barido, Ngowe, Carabao, Pico, Pope , Ottis, Pahuton, Senora, Binoboy, Dudl, Manklar and RAD. (Ref. K)

Mango has very big future in Sindh, due to its climate is one month a- head than other provinces of Pakistan, so the mangoes will ripen and mature and come in the market early. This fetches good price in the market and will have a big demand of fresh mango market internationally.

Banana ( Scientific Name : Musa spp. Family . Musaceae)

In the year 1999-00 in Pakistan , the area under banana cultivation was 26000 hectares, in which Sindh have 22400 hectares under banana cultivation. For the same year banana production in Pakistan was 95700 tonnes, while Sindh banana production was 63800 tonnes. (Ref. .D)

Banana Varieties in Sindh. (Ref. .L)

Sindh has two major banana varieties.
• Cavendish Dwarf (Basrai)
• Cavendish Giant (William Hybrid)

Future of Banana in Sindh.

In 1988 banana Bunchy Top Virus (BBT) was found by M .H. Panhwar in Sindh. It started near Sakro-Keti Bunder and gradually spread over to whole Sindh. In the year 1978 Sindh had 60,000 hectares under banana cultivation, with an average yield of 8 tonnes per acres and (BBT) virus devastated all the farms and destroyed all banana cultivated area . (Ref. M)

Apple ( Scientific name : Malus Pumila Mill ; Syn. Pyrus Malus Linn)

In the year 1999-00 the area under apple crop in Pakistan was 45500 hectares, out of which Sindh have only 0100 hectare under apple. For the same year apple production in Pakistan was 532300 tonnes , while in Sindh only production was 0200 tonnes . (Ref. .D). Few farmers in Sindh grow apple, which is crab apple.

Apple fruit in Sindh.

Sindh have sub-tropical climate with 100-550 chill units. Only Panhwar Fruit Farm in Sindh have following low-chill apple varieties Anna, Dorset Goldern, Einshmer .Sindh has great potential of introducing the above cultivars.

Guava (Scientific name :Psidium Guajava L.

In the year 1999-00 in Pakistan 57400 hectares were under guava crop, out of which Sindh have 4400 hectares. For the same year guava production in Pakistan was 461400 tonnes in Sindh it production was 26700 tonnes (Ref.. D)

Local guava varieties.

Local guava varieties are very inferior in production, taste and are attacked by large number of infections and diseases and its keeping quality is very low.

Future Guava Varieties. (Ref.-O)

Beaumont, Ka Hua Kula (097), Hong Kong Pink, Fan Relief, 11-56 (T3), Supreme (F1), Ruby, Miami Red, Weber, Rolf Hart, GAH- 5673, GA11-56 III, Bassateen, Rojo, Africano, Agrio, Fan Retief guava (Dual Purpose ), Dimple Guava (Fredene, Weldheim, Jonelle), Psidium (Beaumont), Psodium cattleianum GPI-823, Psidium Guayjva, Pomoho Pink (Florida), Brazil white, Brazil Red, Red Decent, Pomho Pink, Munlingia Calabura, (Physalis Peruviana), Dovyalis bebecaipa, Solanum guifoense, Psidium guajava IPA-B-22.1, Psidium guajva IPA-B-14.2, Psidium guajava PIA-B-14.3, GOIABA-IAC-4.

Guava not only can have fresh fruit market in Sindh but it will have big demand for processed in food industry in Pakistan and Internationally as well.

Peach ( Scientific Name : Prunus Persica Stocks. Family. Rosaceae.

In the year 1999-00 the area under peach was 4400 hectares, where these shares comes from Punjab and Balochistan. For the same year peach production in Pakistan was 43700 tonnes, while nobody except Mr .M .H.Panhwar and Mrs. Farzana Panhwar grow peaches at Panhwar Fruit Farm in Sindh , many varieties of peaches.(Ref. D)


Sindh have Sub-tropical climate, with 100-550 chill units. Under such condition only low chill peach varieties can grow in Sindh. The varieties grown in Sindh are. Florida beauty, Florida Prince, Tropical beauty, Rayon, Tropical sweet, Florida star, Tropical snow and Tropical Glo, are successfully grown by M.H.Panhwar and Mrs.Farzana Panhwar at Panhwar Fruit Farm at Tando Jam in .Pakistan. Peaches are in great demand as fresh fruit, because Sindh peaches comes in the month of May-July, when the peaches supply from other provinces not yet started. Peaches have very big future in Sindh.( Ref. .P)

Grapes ( Scientific name : Vitis Vinifera .L., Ampelidaceae family. Vitaceae.

In the year 1999-00 the grapes in Pakistan was grown an 9000 hectares , while they are mostly grown in Balochistan and N.W.F.P There production in the year 1999-00 in Pakistan was 67300 tonnes . No one grow grapes in Sindh, except Mr .M.H.Panhwar and Mrs.Farzana Panhwar at Panhwar Fruit Farm in Sindh .(Ref. .D)

Future Varieties on grapes in Sindh

Most of these grapes varieties are already under cultivation by M.H.panhwar & Farzana Panhwar
The various varieties of grapes grown , as well as future varieties are as under. (Ref. .Q)
• White grapes varieties - Emerald seedless, Fresno seedless and Sultana Muscata.
• Black grape varieties- Beauty seedless, Black Muscat of Hamberg, Alphonso lavalle, Monuka , Russian seedless.
• Red grapes varieties- Flame seedless, Ruby seedless, Red globe, Empeor seedless, King Ruby, Cardinal seedless.
• Golden grape varieties- Italia seedless, Thompson seedless, Regina (Waltam Cross ), Perlette seedless, Interlaken seedless, Himrood seedless and Fanta’sy seedless.
• Raisin varieties- Thomuscat, Moscata, Emeralad seedless , Fresno 58-93, Russian seedless, Australian MS-23-7, CG-1481, Barlinka, Ribeir and Sultaniana.

Climate of Sindh is extremely suitable for grapes growing. It have very great future in Sindh.

Pomegranate ( Scientific name : Punica Granatum Linn. Family Punicaceae.)

In the year 1999-00 the pomegranate in Pakistan was grown an area of 6500 hectares , it production was 96700 tonnes. Most of pomegranate comes from Balochistan and N.W.F.P. In Sindh only M.H.Panhwar and Farzana Panhwar grow pomegranate successfully at Panhwar Fruit Farm. (Ref. .D)

Varieties grown at Panhwar fruit farm are. Wonderful, Graneda, Ruby Red and Fleshman (Ref. .R)

Future varieties of pomegranate in Sindh.

Foot Hill, Gulosha Rosovayo, Vales, Shepands Red, Karan Seclation, Eliche, Jodhpuri, Ganesh, Poona, Paper Shell, Ras-el-Baghi, Roman Chakab Mallisi, Selimi, Yarquard, Ahmar , Asward, Halwa , Halu, Ragwani, Almasi, Teadril, Molar, Wonderrful, Sweet, Kabul, Red Lou Fani, Maliss Rasel Baghal, Publa, Man gualti, Granada de China, Granode Agria, Tehuacan, Basein, Ganeshi Kabuli, Dolka, Bedana , kalishirin, Glue-Shahi, Kozkai, Achikdona , Soni Bedana, Shirin, Schahvar
Bala Myursal, Kara-Bela-Myursal, Gyuleisha -Azerbaidazannskaya, Bashkalinskili, Al-Shin, Kai Achak Anor, Shrin Nor and Kazake Anor (Ref. .R)

Pomegranate have great demand both as a fresh fruit as well as processing and juice industry.

Dates ( Scientific name : Phonix Dactylifera-L, family Palmae.)

In the year 1999-00 in Pakistan the dates was covering an area 75200 hectares, while in Sindh it cover an area of 20700 hectares. For the same year its production in Pakistan was 581200 tonnes , while in Sindh its production was 111500 tonnes (Ref. .D)

Different forms of date fruit are used as source of food these are.
• Khasiyun
• Kimri.
• Doka or Khalal.
• Looni KharKoon.
• Dang ( Rutab)
• Pind or tree ripened (Van Pakal) or Tamar or Kharak.

Local varieties of dates in Sindh are as under.

DegletNoor, Asel, Halawi , Khudrawy, Zahidi, Zari, Shamran, Jowan, Bcrni, Kahrba, Kalud, and Begum Jangi.

Future varieties for Sindh.

Barhi, Dayri, Hayany, khastawi, Maktoom, Medjool, Saidy. ,Sayer, Thoory, Amir Haji, Iteema, Migraf, Manakhir, Agnioua, Chars, Murzaban, Khanezi, Angal, Haiyani, Saidy, Zagloul, Samani, Hamraiya, Irzeiz, Ustaumran, Bikraari, Taasfirt, Murzabad, Sucotari , Succari, Mabsaly, Fardh, Tingerguel, Bufaguns, Barakaavi, Misharig-Khatiba, Fatumi, Mozawati, and Dhakki.

Dates have very big future. The local varieties had shown failure due to low yield, poor harvest abilities, rain and humidity susceptibility. attacks by large number of pest and diseases. The tissue culture and genetically evolved varieties have very big future in Pakistan.

Papaya ( Scientific name : Carica Papaya. Family, Caricaveae.)

Local varieties are Honeydew ( Malhubindu), Singapore, Ceylon and Washington.

Future varieties.

Solo , Bluestem, Graham, Fairchild, Betty and Kissimmee, Sun-Rise Hava, Waimanalo , Maroochy, Sunybank Coorg Honey-2, CO-IB, Honey-Dew-2, CO-2 and CO-5, Kapoho, Masumoto Solo, Honey Gold, Singapore, PR.8-65, Pink flesh, Puer to Rico, Blue Solo, Brazilian-3, Mexico-2, Campo Grande, Tocaimera, Zapote, Bettina, 43-A-3, Pusa Giant, Pusa Dwarf, Norton, Purplesten, Bluestem, PR-6-65 and PR.7-65.( Ref. S)

Papaya fruit have very big future in Sindh, both as fresh fruit market as well as Papain industry.

Litchi ( Scientific name : Litchi Chinensis Sonn. Family. Sapindaceae.)

In Sindh only three small farmer grows litchi. Local varieties Bedana , Surahi and Gola. But M.H.Panwar and Farzana Panhwar they grows large number of selected from seedlings varieties at Panhwar Fruit Farm.

Future varieties .

Wai Chee, Hakk Yip, Sum Yee , Hong, kwai, May, No Mai Chee, Souey Tung, Taiso, Brewster, Shah Keng, Chony , Young Ong, Chang yum Hong, Tai So, Baidum, Pink, Salathiel, Kaimana, Brewster Sweet Cliff, pink, Maritius, Kohala , Groff, Emperor, Ambonia, Grove Special, Hak Ip, Hanging Green, Kwaluk, Late Glob, Souey Tung, Peerless, Garnets, Shanchi, Yellow Red, Snatheil, Acekce, Kau Iu, Kwai Wei, Hsiang Li, Hsi Chio Tsu, Hei yeh , Fei Tsuhsiano, T’ang Po, Shang shou Huai Ch’umatsu, Tatsao, , , Huai Chin, San Yuch Hung, Pai La Li Chin, Shan Chih, Fay Zee Siu. (Ref. T)

Litchi has a great potential as a table varieties as well as canned fruit, and processed industry.

Longan ( Scientific name : Euphoria Longana )

In Sindh longan is only grown by M.H.Panhwar and Farzana Panhwar at Panhwar Fruit Farm.

Future Varieties.

Kohala, Daw, Dang, Chompoo, Haew, Biew Kiew, Badium, Homes tead, Ponai Kay Sweeney, Black ball, Fukho No-2, Iiao , Wai, Carambo , Sweeney, Saig Geeb, Shek Yip, Fa Hakk, Fa Hok Chai, Duanyu , Chien Leiu, Yeng Tau Yeh, Chau on diao, Chiu Yeun Wu, and Xixia. (Ref. U)

Longan have a great future as fresh table fruit in Sindh.

Chiku ( Scientific name : Sapodilla or Sapota, family. Sapotaceae)

In Sindh we have only two local varieties called gola and egg.

Future Varieties.

Brown Sugar , Prolific, Russell, and Tikal, Kalipatti, Calcutta Special (Ref.B3 )
Pilipatti, Ju-makhia , Mohana Gooti, Kittubarti, Cricket Ball, Dwarapudi, Bangalore, Jonnava-losa-I, Jonnava-losa-II, Jonnavalosa Round, Gauranga, Ayyangar , Thagarammudi, Badam Bhuri, Calculta Round , CO-I, Dhola Diwani, Fingar, Gavarayya , Guthi, Kali, Vanjet, Pot, Sawo betewi, Sawo Koolon, Sawo apel Kalpa, SCH-02, SCH-03, SCH-07, SCH-08, SCH-28, Modello, Seedless, Boetzberg, Larsen, Morning Star, Jamica ‘8, Jamica ’10, Tikal, Addley, Adelide, Big Pine Key, Black, Jamica N0-4, Jamica N0-5 , Martin, Saunders, Ponderosa, Java, Sao Manila , Native, Formosa, Rangel . (Ref. .Y)

The local chicku varieties are low in yielding. The improved varieties have very big market potential due to big in size, uniform ripening , large size, and better shelf life.

Jaman ( Scientific name : Syzigium Cumini. Family.Myrtaceae )

In Sindh we have only two local varieties, Tall and Dwarf.

Future varieties .

• Syzigium Jambos (Rose apple or Safed jamun )
• Syzigium Fruitecosum, Syzigium Javanica.
• Syzigium densiflora, Syzigium Uniflora and syzigium Zeylanica.
• (Ref. A1)

Early Wild, Late Wild, Pharenda, Small Jaman and Dabaka (Ref-B3)

Jaman have big future as agro-forest tree in Sindh. Its wood, leaves and bark is used in large number of medicines and industries. The jaman fruit is the only fruit advised by the doctor to be given to diabetic patients. Its fruit contain Insulin, which helps in lowering the blood sugar level, but lot of research is needed to improve its keeping qualities and extraction of very useful medicines out of it.

Phalsa ( scientific name : Grcwia Asiatica Linn. Family, Tiliaceae )

The Species Grewia Vestita Wall: are divided into two groups.
• Grewia Tilliacfolia.
• Grewia Sapinda.
• ( Ref. .J)
In Sindh only Grewia Tilliacfolia is found. The local varieties Sharbati Tall and Sharbati Dwarf are commonly found ( Ref. A1)

The tall variety produce fruit which is more acidic, while the dwarf produce fruit with small fruit , having small seeds.

Phalsa have great potential both as fresh fruit as well as processing , juice, jam and jelly making. It is a good source of Vitamin C and used as a quick source of as a relief agent against high summer heat in Sindh.

Custard Apple ( Scientific name : Anona Squamosa Linn. Family. Anonaceae)

Although more than 50 species are present in the World, in Sindh we have only Anona Squamosa ( Sitaphal Syn. Sarifa ) and Anona Reticulata ( Ramphal ) as local varieties.

Future varieties.

Loma , Mc.Pherson , Ott, Ryerson and Sallmon. ( Ref.Z)

Lisa, Impresa , Umbonada, Papilonado, Tetilaolo, Tuberculada, #1, # 2, Chauez, Namas, RioNegro, Bronceada, Concha Picuda, Terciopelo, Pinchua, Basta, Bays, Whaley, Deliciosa, Booth, ,Carter, Ryerson, White , Chaffey, Horton , Golden Russct, Mira Vista and Salmn. ( Ref. B3)

Although the local varieties are heavy bearers and drought and salinity resistant, but are severely attacked by powdery mildew. The genetically evolved insects, pest and diseases resistant varieties have great future in Sindh.

Jujube ( Scientific name : Zizyphus Jujube Lam. Family.Rhamnaceae)

Many local grafted varieties, are very successful in Sindh.

Future varieties.

Banarasi, Pewandi, Dandan, Kaithli, Muria Maharara, Narikelee, Nazuk, Sanauri -1,
Sanauri-5, Thornless, Umran, Banarsi, Karaka Kaithli, Katha Phal, Gular Bashi, Kheera, Nazuk, Seober, Var. 1, Var.2, Var.3, Var.4 and Var.5 ( Ref.B3)

Zizyphus.Vulgaris, Z.Sativa , Z.rotundifolia, Z.oncoplia, Z.xylocarnus, Z.rugosa, Z.iumiculosa, Z.spina, Z.glabrata, Z. oxyphylla , Z.mucronata, Z.Joazeiro, Z.mistol, Z.lotus, Z.chrisi, Lang, Mushing Hong, Shui Men, So Tu, Tigertooth, Leon Burk, Intermis, and Chico ( Ref. V)

Gola is the common variety grown throughout Sindh, it can stand drought and salinity, produce good crop, but the its potential to export in the International market is limited due to severe attacks of infection and diseases, so the future of new varieties in Sindh is extremely good .Due to recent drought many rear plantation of Z.mauritanisa have come and rate are falling. Unless it is exported on large scale, the plantation may have to be removed.

Fig ( Scientific name : Ficus Carica L. family.moraceae)

In Sindh only M.H.Panhwar and Farzana Panhwar grow Italian Everbearer and Brown Turkey, fig at Panhwar Fruit Farm.

Future varieties.

Celeste, Brunswick, Marseilles, Adriatic, Genoa, Purple Genoa, Black Ischia and Poona. ( Ref.B3)

Cape white, Preston Prolific, White Genoa, Black Genoa, Brown Turkey, white Adriatic, Excel, Flanders, Adriatic, Calimyrna, Kadota, Mission, Conadria, King and Diredo and Brown Turkey. (Ref. W)

In Sindh M.H.Panhwar Mrs.Farzana Panhwar they grow Brown Turkey, which have big market as a fresh fruit. It is very uncommon in Pakistan, because here Pakistan has only dried fig varieties, which are grown in Northern areas of Pakistan. Fig fruit not only is used as a fresh fruit but it is used in fudge making. In Sindh its plant is used as a hedge, it can stand drought, high temperature and salinity conditions up to some extent.

Melon ( Scientific name : Citrullus Lanatus )

The Musk melon, Honey dew melon and water melon are common varieties in Sindh ( Ref. .X)
Pine-melon is considered to be future variety in Sindh ( Ref.B1)

Major future varieties.

Nemta Dark ( W42) F1, Black Lee ( W24) F1, Black Ball ( w22) F1, Sweet Black ( T2-7) F1 ,Red Storm ( 2006) F1, Green Light ( W6) F1, Celebration ( W44) F1, Charles Grey ( W18 ) F1, Legend Seedless, Trimander ( 55) seedless, Yellow baby ( S4) seedless, Black babay ( S2) seedless, Gold Kin ( 2002-20) seedless, Mankata-seedless, Beautiful Ball ( S8), seedless, Desert Strim ( 2401), Black Diamond ( W11) F1, Tender True ( 2301), Seedless, Yellow Inter ((24.2) seedless, Free Grower (W28) F1, New Visa ( W27 ) F1, Merchant ( B02-17) F1, Long Lamp ( VS76)F1, Big Crina ( W26) F1, Camanu (F1), Naukara (F1), Lee 1( W37) F1, Amena ( F10 ), Black Sun (W9) F1, Yellow Show ( 2020) F1, Sweet Heat ( w261) F1, Orang Sweet ( W25) F1, Green Olive ( 2013) F1, Black Doll ( W20) F1, Little Angel ( w21) F1, Vita Star ( W17) F1. ( Ref.B2)

Hybrid Melon varieties.

Snow White 1(M13) F1, Snow White 11 ( M14) F1, Kin Yellow ( M18) F1, Honey Fen ( M19) F1, Early Ha ( M17) F1, Carvela ( # 11) F1, Kin Fuhen ( M26) F1, Honey Fen ( M19) F1, Superman ( M12) F1, Queen Kata (M2) F1 , Tru Tala.F1, Goddess ( M20) F1, Honey Cun ( M22) F1, Nova F1, Kam Tam F1, Delicious ( VM96) F1, Excellence ( VM33) F1, Green Jade ( M27) F1.

Sindh ’s climate is extremely suitable for all kinds of melons, especially the seedless varieties, having more sugar to acid ratio, better post-harvest life, high yielding , more resistant to infections and diseases.

Sindh Special Fruit Crops.

The Statistics of peaches, grapes, pomegranate, papaya, litchi, longon, chicku, jamun, phalsa, custard apple, jujube, fig , musk melon, honey dew melon and water melons for Sindh are not available. The reason is due to non-functional activities of the Sindh Agriculture Department, Sindh Agriculture Research Institute, Sindh agriculture University, Sindh Agriculture Research Stations and Sindh Agriculture Extension work. All the above department have not helped the farmer or researcher to work and come forward, they have collected no data since 1950 , to improve the techniques and guidance of teaching and training the farmers , as a results the Pakistan Ministry of food ,Agriculture and livestock ( Economic Wing ) Islamabad is unable to get and add the statistic of above crops under Sindh., one can see the lack of knowledge in Agriculture Statistic of Pakistan 1999-00 book for the above crops in Sindh.
This further worsening the situation for Sindh is not getting any share of money for Agriculture Research and on-going agricultural activities in Sindh, due to not getting enough share of funds from the Federal Ministry , so the poor performance of agricultural sector in Sindh, pushed this province in to deep poverty, which has results in to corruption, stagnancy in progress and breakdown of law and order situation in Sindh.

Future suggestion for improving the Agriculture in Sindh.

The suggestion are as under:
• Government should take immediate steps to monitor Agriculture Departments, Agricultural Research Institute, Agricultural Universities and Agricultural Extension Units in Sindh.
• Government should provide Agriculture Extension service to the farmer, this service is non-existence right now.
• The proper Agricultural Research analysis laboratories with latest equipment and staff should be provided.
• The biotechnology, genetic engineering and tissue culture laboratories should be established in Sindh.
• In Sindh data collection, printing and dissemination Centre should be established.
• Proper soil testing and leaf analysis laboratories should be established.
• The library with latest research reports ad journals and Internet facilities should be provided.
• The environmental protection Centre should be established.
• The hospital with facilities of occupational diseases should be established.
• Government should take drastically strong steps to eliminate and reduce the illiteracy rate in the province.
• The stock supplies of standard fertilisers and seeds should be supplied at the season.
• The hospital facilities with the hazard prevention and cure at the field, as well as the poison caused by the any insecticide, pesticide, weedicide and fungicide , medicines and first aid should be available in Sindh.
• All Federal Ministries should keep in touch with the Sindh Department.

• Post-harvest facilities, its processing and cold-storage should be established in Sindh.
• All farm to market road should be established , which are non- existence.
• Government should provide farmer market to sale their produce themselves.
• Government should revised present Agricultural commodities prices.
• Government should provide facilities for publishing Agricultural Research Reports, thesis, books ,magazine and journals to bring awareness among the peoples.
• Government should provide an out-let of import and export facilities at farmer’s door.
• Government should boost organic agriculture and sustainable agriculture to control environmental pollution.


The climatic conditions and seasons in Sindh are such that all fruits and vegetable and agricultural crops mature nearly one month earlier than other Provinces of Pakistan. It is not able to provide fresh fruits and agricultural commodities due to lack of encouragement and education and training of farmers and also is not able to facilities in controlling pollution caused by the use of processed food , in which lot of chemicals additive, preservative and derivatives are used to keep them fresh and without any fungal, virus or bacterial attack, . These things show negative effect on the health of the users.
Since Sindh has good soil, favourable temperature and enough water facilities, if little efforts are put in agriculture sector this province will bring revolution in agriculture and boost the country’s economy and bring the sustainable development in the country and peace globally.


Contact of Panhwar Fruit Farm in Sindh.Pakistan.

Panhwar Fruit farm is owned and run by Panhwar Trust.


The farm is located 25°30', 68°30'E. Panhwar Fruit Farm is located just 6 km from Tando Jam Agricultural University toward Mirpurkhas Road in Sindh. Pakistan.

Contact persons.

Mrs.Farzana Panhwar
E-mail. and
E-mail. and Mobile No. 0300-2477-243.
General Manager Field. Mr.Bachael Sail.
Field Manager. Mr.Ghulam Ali Talpur.
Field Manager. Khalari.

Head office.

Sindh .Pakistan.
Tel No. . 862570 7 860410
Fax. 860410
Karachi-75600. Pakistan.
Tel. 5830816 & 5830826.
Fax. 5830826
At Panhwar Fruit Farm, both Mrs.Farzana Panhwar and Mr.M.H.Panhwar had successfully introduced some 25 new fruit crops in Sindh, on a commercial Scale. Both are authors of some 13 manuals on fruit crops growing in Sindh and about 10 books on fruits post-harvest technology.

If any one needs information or interested in publication of our books, we feel too happy to share our experience and help in arranging Panhwar Fruit Farm Visit.


A) 2003 World Population Sheet of the Population Reference Bureau, Demographic data and estimates for the Countries and Regions of the World.
B) Population, Environment, Dynamics, A data sheet from the population Reference Bureau by Diana Cornelius and Jame Cover, Population Bureau, U.S.A
C) Scarps Monitoring, WAPDA ,Lahore, ( Pakistan Statistical Year Book FBS )
D) Agricultural Statistics of Pakistan 1999-00, Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Live stock ,FALD- Division ( Economic Wing ), Islamabad, 302p.
E) Government of Pakistan Planning commission, Annual Plan 2003-2004, Economic Frame Work and Public Sector Development Programme, Islamabad, June-2003.
F) Kalidas Sawhney , Dr.DAJI, Dr.Raghvan, and Dr.V.S.Bhatt, Indian Council of Agricultural Research New Delhi, 1961, 761p. Revised edition, 1987, 1303p, Hand Book of Agriculture, I.C.A.R
G) F.A .Hammer Schlag and R.E. Litz, Biotechnology of Perennial Fruit Crops, 1992, C.A.B, International, 550p
H) The Brooks and Olmo Register of Fruits and Nut Varieties , third edition, 1997, ASHS Press, 743p.
I) Grape Fruit Growing Manual by M.H.Panhwar and Mrs.Farzana Panhwar.
J) Muhmmad Asghar Gianai , Atreatise on Horticulture, Bureau of Agriculture Information ( Publication Divisions ), Department of Agriculture Government of West Pakistan, Lahore, 1968,538p
K) Mango Fruit growing Maual by M.H..Panhwar and Mrs.Farzana Panhwar.
L) The Banana Epidemic in Sindh by mM.H..Panhwar.
M) Banana Disease in Sindh by M.H.Panhwar.
N) Apple and Peach Growing Manual by M.H.Panhwar and Mrs.Farzana Panhwar.
O) Guava Growing Manual by M.H.Panhwar and Mrs.Farzana Panhwar.
P) Peach Growing Manual by M.H.Panhwar and Mrs.Farzana Panhwar.
Q) Grapes Growing Manual by M.H.Panhwar and Mrs.Farzana Panhwar.
R) Pomegranate Growing Manual by M.H.Panhwar and Mrs.Farzana Panhwar.
S) Papaya and Pawpawa Growing Manual by M.H.Panhwar and Mrs.Farzana Panhwar.
T) Lychee Growing Manual by M.H.Panhwar and Mrs.Farzana Panhwar.
U) Longan Growing Manual by M.H.Panhwar and Mrs.Farzana Panhwar.
V) A Hand Book of Chinese and South Asian Jujube, Zizyphus jujuba and Zizyphus Mauritiana , The Beer. By M.H.Panhwar and Mrs.Farzana panhwar.
W) Fig Growing Manual by M.H.Panhwar and Mrs.Farzana Panhwar.
X) Post-harvest Technology For Export of Melons by M.H.Panhwar and Mrs.Farzana Panhwar.
Y) Brooks and Olmo. Register of Fruit and Nut Varieties, 3rd edition 1997, ASHS Press, 743p
Z) The Chiku neglected fruit of Sindh by Mrs.Farzana Panhwar.

A1) S.P.Singh, Fruit Crops for Wasteland, Scientific Publisher India, 1992, 227p.
B1) Josephine Bacon, The Complete Guide to Exotic Fruits and Vegetables, Xanadu, 1988, 242p
B2) XIYU Seeds, Water melon and Melons in China.
B3) Julia F. Morton, Fruit of Warm climate, Creative Resource System Inc., 505p
B4) T.K.Bose and S.K.Mitra, Fruits Tropical and Subtropical, Naya Prokash, 1990, 838p.

Author: Farzana Panhwar (Mrs)
Address: 157-C, Unit No.2, Latifabad, Hyderabad
(Sindh), Pakistan.
E-mail: Fax: 92-21-5830826 and 92-221-860410

Mobile No . 0300-2477-243.





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Volunteers can be sustainable, volunteer them-selves of aware of problems and solution thereof. The volunteers especially the young one need intensive training by senior volunteer, or senior organisations.

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Trained volunteers, helps the people to eliminate poverty by self-employment or new trade and new technologies and bring peace in the universe.




Nitrogen is an important constituent of protein and protoplasm. And essential for the growth of plants. Its shortage leads to chlorosis ( yellow of leaves) and stoppage of growth. Its excess adversely effect the quality of fruit. Its presence in moderate doses is essential for plant growth and fruiting. it is usually deficient in soils. Nitrogen given to plants in the forms organic manure and artificial fertilisers. It is also present in the air but plants can not directly avail of it. The lithosphere and atmospheric content of molecular nitrogen are 18 x 1015 and 3.8 x 10 15 tones . In plant nitrogen lost through leaching, erosion or escape of ammonia or elemental N into the atmosphere.

Function of nitrogen (Ref.9)
It is a part of protein, important constituent of protoplasm, enzymes, the biological catalytic agents which speed up life processes. Nitrogen is also present as a part of nucleoprotein , amino acids, amines, amino sugar, polypeptides and other organic compounds in plants. In order to prepare a food for plant, plant required chlorophyll, energy of sunlight to form carbohydrates and fats from CO2 and water and nitrogenous compounds. Nitrogen constitutes about 5-6% of soil organic matter by weight. Nitrogen is added to the soil both symbiotic and non-symbiotic fixation from the atmosphere

Natural source of N in the soil. (Ref.3)
Nitrogen increases the area of the leaf, while potassium increases its efficiency.
The maximum up-take of nutrients occurs during the period of most active growth.
Ammonium sulfate and sodium nitrate their responses of various crops are different.
Ammonium salts in the soil dissolves and take part in cation exchange with soil colloid particle. A proportion of ammonium ions displace from the colloids an equivalent amount of calcium, magnesium and potassium ions, which are absorbed by growing plant. If soil conditions are good the nitrifying organisms will oxidize the ammonium to nitric acid, then immediately dissolve calcium to nitric acid, and then immediately dissolve calcium compounds to produce calcium nitrate. is largely not absorbed directly by the plant is largely absorb by the soil colloids then convert to nitrate.

“X” represent negatively charged soil colloid particles,
CaX + (NH4)2SO4------cation exchange -----------.(NH4)2X + CaSO4.
(NH4)2X----------------nitrification---------2HNO3 + H2X
2HNO3 + CaX------------neutralization -------Ca(NO3)2 + H2X .

Ammonium salt are not available to the plant until after nitrification in the soil.
Phosphate increased the effect of ammonium sulfate slightly and sodium nitrate are markedly. Sodium nitrate is better than ammonium sulfate , except in the presence of phosphorus and potassium or sodium .

Form of N utilized by plants.
In order to N absorbed by plant. The organic N into inorganic NO3-N called minarlization of N ..In which organic N present in soil by the help of soil-microrganism converted in to ammonia ( ammonification ) and organic N converted in to inorganic NO3-N .The plants takes up N from the soil in the form of NO3- and NH4+ ions, urea as amino acid

The N uptake in plant is as under :
Nitrate --------------Nitrate reductase ------Nitrite--------Nitrate reductase
(NO3) (NO2)

Hyponitritie ------------Hyponitrite reducatse -----------Hydroxylamine

Hydroxylamine ------------Hydroxylamine reductase -----------Ammonia
(NH2OH) (NH2)

Nitrogen is taken up in both cationic (NH4)+ and anionic (NO3-) forms. Nitrogen is used as ammonium fertilizer. Ammonium up take is best low pH , also carbohydrate status of the plant effect on NH4+ uptake. High carbohydrate plants favor high NH4+ uptake through enhancement of ammonia assimilation. Ammonium ion and ammonia are inter-convertible. NH3(aq) + H+ = NH4.Ammonium. Nitrogen shows toxicity at higher pH. Wheat , sugarbeat, rice, tolerate high NH4-N concentration at acid to neutral pH.
NH3(aq) could freely diffuse in to it and un-couple photosynthetic photosynthetic phosphorylation.
The nitrogen forms which are readily taken up by plants are NH4+ and NO3- ions.
The inert atmospheric N2 must be converted to either NH3-N or NO3-N before utilization by plants. N2 + 3H2= 2NH3 ammonium fertilizer produced. The total world biological N fixation to be the order of 17.2 x 107 tones per annum.

Two types of microorganisms are involved in biological N2 fixation are:
Free living microorganism. ,microorganism living symbiotically with higher plants.
Free living N-fixers are :
• Azotobacter need pH 6.5 ( Beijerinckia species are aerobic) Clostridium strain
• Achromobacter.
• Pseudomonas bacteria.
• Phototsyntheitic bacteria
• Soil fungi.
• Blue-green-algae.
• All these are anaerobic.

Nitrogen fixation by legumes and under field conditions (Ref.9)

Crops N-fixed, Kg/hec/year
Alfalfa 261
Red clover 163
Sweet clover 182
Peas 51
Soybean 63

Soil bacteria and fungi require nitrogen in their food, most of them utilize the soluble nitrogen compounds like ammonium salts and nitrate present in the soil.

Rhizobum forms colonies or nodules on the roots of leguminous plants. The plant provides the organisms with energy in the form of carbohydrate and receives some of the combined nitrogen manufactured by the organism from the atmosphere. It is this association between nitrogen-fixing bacterial and legumes, which help in maintain the soil fertility. The gain of nitrogen from good crop is about 45 Kgs per acre per annum.

Azotobacter, clostridium, the non symbiotic N fixation under orchard conditions vary from 0-55 Kg per hectare annually.

Azobacter is an organism, is a free-living soil bacteria, they are capable of fixing nitrogen, if they are provided carbohydrate material. The carbohydrate is oxidized and supply energy necessary for the fixation of the atmospheric nitrogen. This nitrogen becomes available to plants after the death and mineralisation of the cells of the free-living organisms and helps to maintain combine nitrogen in the soil.

The N-fixing bacterial are photosynthetic one are heterotropic Azobacter and fix about 90kg/ha/annum.Rhizobium species live in association with legumes are very important N2 fixers. It fixes N around 100-400 Kg/N/ha/year. The amount of N2 fixed depend on host condition soil pH, K, Ca, P, Co, Mo, status.

Plant obtain their N either by uptake as nitrates and ammonium or by reduction of atmospheric disnitrogen in root nodules of legumes, some other plants ammonia is assimilated in the root, where nitrate reduced in root or exported in the xylem to NO3 reduction sites in the shoot. Nitrogen which is assimilated in the root is converted in to amides , amino acids and ureides:
• Effect of N on root growth
N supply causes relatively more growth of shoot than roots.(Ref.5)
• Effect of N on Carbohydrate utilization
Decrease carbohydrate status under high N supply ( Ref.6)
• Effect of N on Fruit formation.
High N fertilization, grain/straw ratio decreases; under extreme N deficiency . N application increases grain/straw ratio.
• Effect of N on Hardiness of plant. ( Ref.7)
High nitrogen supply increase the winter hardiness of peach tree.
• Effect of N on Maturity Time.
Heavy nitrogen application delay the maturity of fruits.

Sources of nitrogen. (Ref.2)
Ammonium nitrate and urea are the widely used source of nitrogen. The nitrogen application do increase the soil acidity and lime requirement. Low rate of application involveds low quantities of nitrogen required by the tree with large pool of soil nitrogen available.

Nitrogen in plant can be classified in to three groups:
• Inorganic fraction, in form of NO3- and NH4+.
• Low molecular weight organic fraction-contains amino acids, amides and amines,
• High molecular weight organic bipolymers, protein and nucleic acids.

Conversion of nitrate to ammonia is as under:

NO3- -----NO2-------N2O2-2----------NH4OH-------NH3
Nitrate Nitrite Hyponitrite Hydroxylamine ammonium

Nitrate reduction found both in roots and upper plant ..Nitrate reductase activity is higher in young meristematic tissue.

There are 3 forms of inorganic nitrogen in fertilizers:
• Nitrates supply NO3- ions.
• Ammonium salts supply NH4+ ions.
• Simple amides are not ionized but contain nitrogen.
• NH2 (amide) form or forms derived from this group.

Different forms of Nitrogen.
Nitrogen is present in various forms .These are as under:
• Ammonium sulfate
• Ammonium nitrate
• Sodium nitrate
• Calcium nitrate.
• Urea .

Other forms.
• Solids (includes ammonium phosphate)
• Solutions.

All nitrates are water soluble, their action on crop depends upon the other ions in fertilizer salts, this may be potassium, sodium, calcium or ammonium.

Chilean nitrate of soda-contain 16% of nitrate-nitrogen, 26% of sodium. It is water soluble.

Chilean potash nitrate-common fertilizer contains 15% N ( all as nitrate), 10%K2O and 20% sodium.
Potassium nitrate (KNO3) contains 13.8% N and 36.5% K (about 44% K2O.

Calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)2,NH4NO3,10H20) which contain 15.5% N

Nitrogen materials.
Nitrogen may supplied to the soil from any one or more of the following sources.
1) Organic.
a) Natural
b) Synthetic
2) Inorganic.

1) Organic.
a) Natural organic material
These material include farmyard manure, oil-cake, dried blood, fish manure, green manure, sewage products, castor, neem and other oil cakes, these become N supplier in about week or ten days.
b) Synthetic organic nitrogen.
Material containing synthetic organic N are readily soluble in water .These are:

(i) Calcium Cyanamide.
Nitrogen combine with calcium carbide to produce calcium cyanamide.
CaC2 + N2 = CaCN2 + C (carbon)
This is an exothermic reaction produce at ,100C° depending upon the size of unit. Commercial product contains 60% Calcium Cyanamide; the impurities are about 20% lime (CaO), 10% Carbon, which is responsible for dark gray color and small amount of various other substances. It contains 21% N, and is 35% in pure calcium cyanamide.
The nitrogen of Calcium cyanamide is not available to plants, unless they pass in to a reaction of the carbonic acid in the soil which converts the calcium cyanamide in to cyanamide to calcium carbonate
CaCN2 + H2O + CO2 = H2CN2 + CaCO3
The cyanamide is hydrolysed to Ureas.
H2CN2 + H2O) = CO(NH2)2
Soil bacteria convert urea rapidly in to ammonium carbonate and latter more slowly in to nitrate. Cyanamide may form a polymer called dicyano diamide, H4C2N4 if hydrolysis to urea is impeded or if the biological conversion to urea is slow. Both cynamide and dicyanodiamide are toxic to young plants and nitrifying organisms. If it is used on soil ,it kills most of micro organism and is used as weed killer. Calcium cyanamide contains calcium hydroxide so it should not used with ammonium sulfate.

Calcium cynamide ------H2O- ----------Urea –Hydrolysis.----------------NH4 + CO2

It is CaCN2 with 21-22% N is hydrolysed in soil to form urea. It is used as weed killer. Cyanamide decomposes in the soil to form ammonium nitrogen .Cynamide contain lime but it whould not make soil acidic.

(ii) Urea
It contains 46% N. Urea is highly soluble in water and readily absorbd through the leaves
It has chemical formula CO(NH2)2 it is called carbamide. In soil urea readily converted by an enzyme urease to ammonium carbonate, which is unstable and release free ammonia.
It is very soluble and until converted to ammonium compounds through hydrolysis by the enzyme urease. It is just as mobile as nitrate. Commercial urea may contain traces of an impurities (biuret) which damages germination of crops. Pure urea contains 1.5% biuret. Urea free from biuret gives good crop, but suffer two disadvantages.

Rapid decomposition in the soil or on the soil surface.
Free ammonia is formed, this reduce the efficiency of urea. This ammonia damage germinating seeds. Urea is more effective when contain nitrate.

(iii) Liquid ammonia
Liquefied ammonia is new generation of nitrogen fertilizer.
(iv) Urea and urea-form compounds.
It is produced when heating a mixture of anhydrous ammonia and carbon dioxide at high pressure. Urea contain 46.7% Nitrogen, and is readily converted in the soil to nitrate, without leaving any harmful effects.

Biuret (NH2.CO.NH.CO.NH2) which occurs in urea as impurity is toxic to fruit crops. Urea should not contain more than 0.25% Biuret.

2) Inorganic sources.

(i) Chilean nitrate of soda or saltperes.
Its compositions is:

NaCO3 + 2HNO3 ---------- 2NaNO3 + CO2 +H2O

Sodium nitrate shows neutral effect on soil, some impurities like saltpetre or the chilean nitrate of soda is present in a granular form:
(ii) Ammonium Salts.
All ammonium salts used as fertilizer are water soluble and nitrified quickly in slightly acidic and neutral soil to form nitrate. Their effects are as under.

Ammonium sulfate –contain 21%Nitrogen. Due to non-hydgroscopic properties, it is make easy to handle , than nitrates or urea.
Ammonium chloride Contains - 26% Nitrogen, a cheap source of by-product hydrochloric acid.

(iii) Ammonium Nitrates.
It contain ammonium and nitrate, these are water soluble.
Ammonium nitrates- contains 35%N.
Nitro-chalk-contains enough limestone and it does not make soil acidic.
Ammonium nitrate-sulfate-contains 26%N
It supplies both nitrate and ammonical N. It is dangerous in case of fire of its explosive nature. This fertilizer contains almost double the quantity of N as contained by sodium nitrate.

(iv) Calcium ammonium nitrate.
This material is obtained by mixing of ammonium nitrate with precipitated calcium carbonate.

(v) Ammonium and nitrate.
Nitrate, nitrate application if followed by rain then nitrate leaches out. In different soils both ammonium and nitrate show difference. On calcareous soil nitrates give better results than ammonium salt. Nitrate salts are safer.

(vi) Ammonia Nitrate.
Nitric acid is produced by passing ammonia from reaction, mixed with air over platinum catalyst.
NH3 + 2O2 (oxygen) = H2O + HNO3
If nitric acid is neutralized by more ammonia, ammonium nitrate is formed.
HNO3 + NH3 = NH4NO3
Ammonium nitrate is very attractive form of fertilizer salts it contains 35% nitrogen half as the ammonium and half as the nitrate radical. Ammonium nitrate could be used as nitro-chalk, which contain 16% nitrogen. This product is granular and easy to handle.

(vii) Ammonium Phosphate.
It is mono-ammonium phosphate ( NH4.H2.PO4) and is completely soluble in water. It contains 12.2% N and 61.7% P2O5.It can be manufactured by adding the correct amount of ammonia to Phosphoric acid or rock phosphate treated with sulfuric acid and ammonium sulfate, like
Ca3(PO4)2 + (NH4)2 SO4 + 2H2SO4 = 2NH4.H2PO4 + 3CaSO4.
Calcium sulfate is removed by filtration and solution of ammonium phosphate is concentrated.
Di-ammonium phosphate (NH4)2 P2O5 is also manufactured and used alone or mixed with fertilizer. It is easily soluble in water, but it has higher N to P2O5 ratio, containing 21.2%N and 53.8%P2O5.

(viii) Ammonium sulfate
By-products are coal containing 1-2% Nitrogen and 0.5-4% sulfur. The sulfur is present mainly sulfide and calcium sulfate. but as a constituents of organic compounds drive from the original plants and are produced by the action of sulfur bacteria.

When coal burns nitrogen begins to come off as ammonia at a temperature of 300C to 400C. A substantial amount of ammonia is obtained during the gasification of cake by air and steam. Ammonia is also by-product of oil-refining and Shale-distillation plants. Crude gas from the coal is used to remove tar, hydrogen sulfide and oil. The aqueous liquor is obtained by the proves of distilled and free ammonia from ammonium salts. The liberated ammonia gas is mixed with sulfuric acid in saturator and crystal of ammonium sulfate are separated in a centrifuge. About 1/5th of nitrogen is used to recovered 22-23 Ib. of ammonium sulfate from 1 ton of coal.
It is soluble in water and used for mixed fertilizer and top dressing material. Ammonium sulfate continuos use make the soil acidic , so lime is recommended on the soil.

(ix) Ammonium Sulfate Nitrate.
It is produced both in crystalline or granular form. It contain ammonical and nitrate.N in 3:1 ratio. Application of this salt produce acidity.

(x) Calcium Nitrate.
It is soluble in water, nitrogen in form of nitrate is immediately available to the plant. The anhydrous salts Ca(NO3)2 contain 17.1% nitrogen. Calcium nitrate is made by dissolving limestone in nitric acid. In the manufacture of soluble phosphate calcium nitrate is obtained as by –product.
Nitrate has been produced by nitrification of organic matter on higher ground and gradually transferred in solution with other salts to the lower area in height where it has crystallized under the hot dry conditions of the higher plain.
The sodium nitrate the calcite contains large quantity of Sodium chloride, little sodium iodate and substantial quantities of sulfate of sodium, potassium and magnesium .Sodium nitrate is very soluble. Sodium nitrate contains high percentage of oxygen.

(xi) Potassium Nitrate.
Several methods based upon the different solubility of sodium and potassium nitrate are employed to produce Chileans potash nitrate, Chileans potash nitrate contains various composition, it contain 10% K2O and 15% N.

Other Principal sources of inorganic materials used as sources of Nitrogen.

Name of material Compound formula N%
Anhydrous ammonia NH3 82
Ammonia solution NH4OH 20
Ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4 20.5
Ammonium sulfate nitrate (NH4)SO4.NO2 26.0
Ammonium nitrate NH4NO3 33.5
Ammonium Phosphate 40% (NH4)2H2PO4 40
Sulfate 60% (NH4)2SO4 16
Sodium nitrate NaNO3 16
Potassium nitrate KNO3 13
Calcium ammonium nitrate NH4NO3 + CaCO3 25
Calcium cynamide CaCN2 21
Urea NH2CONH3 46
Castor Pomace 5.5
Karanj cake 3.9
Mahua cake 2.5
Neem cake 5.2
Farmyard manure 0.5-1.5
Dried blood 12-14
Slaughter house waste 6-10
Meat meal 5-10

Characteristic of commonly available source of nitrogen (Ref.2)

Sources Percent nitrogen Pound per 1 Ib N Acidity or Basicity
( IbCaCO3)Ib of N Acidity Acidity or Basicity
( IbCaCO3)Ib of N Basicity.
Ammonia , anhydrous 82 1.22 1.8 -
Ammonia, aqua 20 5.00 1.8 -
Ammonium nitrate 33.5 2.98 1.8 -
Ammonium polyphosphate 12 8.33 4.1 -
Ammonium sulfate 20.5 4.88 5.4 -
Calcium nitrate 15.5 6.45 - 1.3
Di-ammonium phosphate 16-18 5.56 4.1 -
Mono-ammonium phosphate 11 9.09 5.3 -
Potassium nitrate 13 7.69 - 2.0
Sodium nitrate 16 6.25 - 1.8
Urea 45 2.22 1.6 -
Nitrogen solution Variable - - -

Nitrogen solutions may consist of mixtures of urea plus ammonium nitrate, aqua ammonia or anhydrous ammonia.

Various forms of Nitrogen fertilizers.
• Nitro-chalk- It is a mixture of ammonium nitrate + lime.
• Nitram – Straight ammonium nitrate.
• Aqueous ammonia.
• Anhydrous ammonia
• Isobutylidene dirurea – Acts as quickly as ammonium nitrate , but it is inferior than it ammonium nitrate.
• Sulfur-coated urea- In which urea is converted to ammonia by nitrification .The organic fertilizer are more expensive than inorganic fertilizers.

Comparison of nitrogen fertilizer.
A kilo gram of nitrogen shows same effect on crop, whether used ammonium sulfate, or ammonium nitrate ,supplied alone or in a mixture with lime or as “Nitrate of soda “ or “potassium nitrate .
The choice of material is based in following things:
 The price charged for 1 kg of nitrogen.
 The efficiency of each fertilizer for particular crops and soils.
 Ease of storage, handling and distribution.
 Whether the fertilizer causes loss of lime from the soil.
 In case of wheat the application of nitrogen, when the crop is heading ,gives a flour that is high in protein and superior baking quantities . Same effect on oats is also found protein content in oat increases by the use of nitrogen fertilizer. In Barley nitrogen fertilizer is carefully applied as , it need high starch for malting purpose.
 In case of root crops excess nitrogen reduces the percentage of dry matter. In case of sugar cane nitrogen fertilizer increases the sugar as well as the yield.
 In case of cereals excessive amount of nitrogen bring too much leaf, late and un-even ripening, fungus attack and lodging of weak stems.
 Some legumes plants roots contain nodules, which contain nitrogen-fixing organisms.
 In legumes N application depresses yields due to inhibition of N fixation by fertilizer N
 The N added to the soil from atmosphere through rain water and biological agencies such as N-fixing bacteria.
 Alkaline soil favor ammonia and acid conditions nitrate up-take under low pH. The application of ammonical N can alter the cation sorbing capacity of root system.
 NH4 + nutrition differs from NO3- nutrition in 3 ways:
 The demand for oxygen to the roots is increased with NH4+ nutrition.
 In case of NH4+ nutrition the competition for the absorption of other cations is increases and this may be harmful for plant growth.
 There may be indirect effects due to change in pH of the medium.

Soil acidification
• Ammonium sulfate make the soil acid. Roughly 1 Kg of ground limestone is lost for every Kg of ammonium sulfate used. So lime must be added to keep the soil neutral.
• Ammonium chloride, ammonium nitrate, ammonium phosphate, urea, anhydrous ammonia and nitrogen all make the soil acidic, because they form nitrate in the soil. If it leaches down it removes equivalent lime. Nitrate fertilizer do not make soil acidic.

Liquid nitrogen fertilizers ( Ref.4)
• Anhydrous ammonia –contains 82% N
• Aqua ammonia – contain 21-29 %N
• Nitrogen soluble fertilizer . Are ammonium nitrate and urea, Ammonia about 82 %N.
• Liquid mixed fertilizer are also called gas liquor. It contain 1-4% nitrogen usually ammonium carbonate or ammonium chloride.
• Ammonia even in diluted aqueous solutions is unsuitable for top dressing grassland, it damages the crop and retards growth, and some ammonia is lost in the air.
• After new trees are planted an application of 15-25 liters per tree of water soluble fertilizer solution like 20-20-20 mixed in 500 liters of water. After leafing in the first season it should be 75-100mgs of ammonium per tree. In second season nitrogen applied at the rate of 100 g per tree, and . 20-25 Kgs of actual nitrogen per acre are sufficient. Leaf analysis of plants are used to know subsequent nitrogen requirement . (Ref.1)
• The Cheaper methods of fixing nitrogen are to be found. The soluble combination is fixing nitrogen with carbides or with hydrogen. The former leads to production of calcium cynamide and later amounts to the synthesis of ammonia. The other methods are : nitrogen may be produced from liquid air and hydrogen by electrolysis of water or both gases may be obtained from natural gas or from the gasification of cake or oil with steam.

Solutions of nitrogen compounds.
• Most commonly used are ammonium sulfate or ammonium nitrate. One method is treat super-phosphate with waste ammonia liquor to obtain ammoniated super phosphate. This way ammonia is neutralized without using sulfuric acid in the method of making by-product ammonium sulfate .Solution of urea or ammonium nitrate in a ammonia are also applied to mixed fertilizers. One such solution containing 41% Nitrogen, 65 parts ammonium nitrate and 22 parts anhydrous ammonia in 13 parts of water. For direct application to the soil ammonium nitrate solutions or liquid anhydrous ammonia is used. Anhydrous ammonia is the cheapest form of nitrogen.

Timing of Nitrogen application (Ref. 11)
• Adequate N is needed at the time of flowering and fruit set and is strongly conditioned by season .In summer application both soil and spray, resulting poor fruit quality.
• The highest rate of N application results in to doubling of tree dry weight and increasing in the dry matter percentage of all tissue.
• It is found that 1.36 kg of N annually ( half from a concentrated fertilizer, half from manure ) with winter cover crops results in highest yield and fruit size per tree
• Iron and Cu content rises with increase in N fertiliser. ( Ref.11)

N-deficiency symptoms
• The tops, shoots, and roots of N. deficiency are stunted. The shoots are usually upright and spindly stunted..The leaves become small, and pale yellow. There is dieback of twigs and gradual defoliation, which result in thin, brushy appearance of tops, and fruit size is reduced.
• Deficiency of nitrogen revealed by paleness of color in the leaves and general stunting growth. The yellow pigment carotene, which is animal converted to vitamin A.
• Nitrogen deficiency associated with anthrocyain pigmenting. N deficiency plant mature earlier and vegetative growth phase is terminated early.
• Young leave show strong sink of N, which contain high amount of N15 and NH4-N,.When nitrogen deficiency occour the older leaves feed young leaves so N deficiency symptoms first appear on old leaves. Soil N depends upon the soil type, temperature and rain fall
• The availability of N contained in the fertilizer depends upon the form of N contained by the material. Leaching is directly proportional to the degree of N in a material. So nitrate-N has greater tendency to leach than the ammonia-N
• In general, 10% increase or reduction in nitrogen application is usually reflected as 0.1% change in leaf nitrogen content. Spreading the fertilizer under the trees in a rings or bands or over the weed free strips along the tree rows is more efficient. Required 1/3rd or ½ half the amount of material needed in broadcasting over the entire orchard floor (Ref.1)
• The enzyme nitrate reductase, molybdenum (Mo) had been found to be a constituent of enzyme so in Mo-deficent plant nitrate reduction fails to take place and plants suffer N deficiency.
• Nitrogen is a constituent of protein and chlorophyll with protein they form protoplasm, which are the active centers of metabolism, less active protein store in chlorophyll, which absorb light and carbon dioxide presence produce various carbon compounds. The dry matter of plant contains from less than 1 and more than 5% of nitrogen, but it also depend upon the stage of plant and amount of nitrogen available to it. The plant use atmospheric free nitrogen and into a combined form. This nitrogen then become available to the plants.
• Nitrogen is a constituent of protein, nucleic acid (DNA and RNA), chlorophyll, many co-enzymes ATP, NAD, alkaloids and many other classes of compounds. The major effect of nitrogen deficiency is impaired protein synthesis and growth. Its deficiency symptom is chlorosis due to reduced synthesis of chlorophyll.
• Plants take up both ammonium and nitrate ions. Soil ammonium-N converted in to nitrate by the help of microbial action.
• The oxidation of organic material in the soil produce small amount of nitrogen.
• Nitrogen fertilizer is one of the basic mineral element required by the plants to provide high yield ( Ref. 12)

Health of crop .(Ref.8)
• Rhizoctonia Solani of bean plant lowered by increase N supply through organic source.
• (Ref.9.) This way the decomposition of organic matter led to high soil CO2 concentration to which the strains of R.Solani were susceptibale )
• More nitrogen, increases the relative humidity around the plants and increase infection by airborne diseases, like mildew and rust. In apple high amount of N increase the incidence of fire blight.
• Reduction in N supply results in poor vegetative growth but increased fruitfulness.
• The atmosphere contains ammonia and oxides of nitrogen. The oxide of nitrogen are produced by degradation of the protein of the earth.
• The proportion of ammonia nitrogen tends to be greater in summer than in winter .Nitrate nitrogen is highest after thunderstorms.
• The amount of nitrogen contained in a crop reachesto between 50 and 200Ibs per acre.
• Urea spray inhibites the germination of bean rust spores and minimizes disease incidence
• Soil rich in organic matter requires less amount of nitrogen than other soils for maximizing crop production.
• Tree vigor has direct relationship with nitrogen status. The excess nitrogen in fruit crops affects fruit color, firmness and storage quality. In order to check nitrogen fertilizer requirements various factors are need to be consideres. The nitrogen requirement of mature trees can be considered to be proportional to the amount of structural wood contained in trunks, scoif fold limbs and large roots. Different soils have different capacity of fertilizer nitrogen availability. The efficiency of nitrogen in various soils varies 55-80%.
• The amount of nitrogen fertilizer requirement effect by the presence of soil moisture and competition of the ground cover for nitrogen (Ref.1)
• Sodium nitrate prevented by the application of gypsum and ammonium sulfate were eliminated by lime stone.
• Combined use of NO3-N and ammonium-N brings better results
• (NH4)2SO4 shows better results than NH4NO3 ,Ammonium-N reduces the soil pH .It interferes with uptake of some other cations especially Mg.
• For normal growth plants require from 2-55 N in their dry matter. High nitrogen fertilizer use may impair product quality.
• Soils of humid and pre-humid regions containes more N than those from the arid or semiarid areas.
• Adequate P and K levels tend to boost up the crop response to N
• (Ref..14. )
• Oxides of N are formed in the atmosphere by lightening which is washed down to the soil with the help of rainwater.
• Nitrogen concentration decrease with Ca deficiency. Addition of either N or a Ca salt increase N concentration.
• The slow release N fertilizer are : urea, formaldeyhyde ,Isobutylidene diurea etc.
• ( Ref.8) .
• The nitrogenous fertilizers supply N to either NO3- or NH4+ form. The performance of crop under ammonium and nitrate nitrogen remains the same in most soils.

Nitrogen is an important constituent of protein and protoplasm. Essential for growth of plants. Nitrogen in plant can be classified in to three groups:
a) Inorganic fraction, in form of NO3- and NH4+.
b) Low molecular weight organic fraction-contains amino acids, amides and amines,
c) High molecular weight organic bipolymers. Protein and nucleic acids.
d) Conversion of nitrate to ammonia is as under:
NO3- -----NO2-------N2O2-2----------NH4OH-------NH3

Inorganic nitrogen Sources
Calcium cynamide; urea; Chilean nitrate of soda or saltpets, ammonium nitrate; ammonium phosphate; ammonium sulfate; ammonium sulfate nitrate; calcium nitrate; potassium nitrate.
Ammonia, anhydrous contain 82% N; urea contains 45%N; ammonium nitrate contains 33.5% N. Nitrogen also fixed by legumes like : alfalfa; red clover; sweet clover; peas; soybean. Rhizobium and Azotobacter Clostridium are capable of fixing nitrogen and supplying atmospheric N to the plants.
Nitrogen deficiency effects on photosynthesis, so leaves turn yellow, it also effects on root growth, carbohydrate utilization, fruit firmness, hardness of plants, maturity time, diseases incidence.
In order to remove N deficiency the consideration of soil, pH and time of application is need to be considered.

(Ref. 1. Warren C.Stites and W.Shaw Reid, Orchard Nutrition Management; Information bulletin 210; Cornell Cooperative Extension. )
( Ref. 2 Delwiche, 1970 , Scientific Amer; 71-80pp)
(Ref. 2: Warren C. Stiles and W.Shaw Reid; Orchard Nutition Management; Information bulletin 219. Cornell cooperative extension; 23p)
(Ref. 2: Warren C. Stiles and W.Shaw Reid; Orchard Nutition Management; Information
( Ref:3. Dr.G.W.Cooke .C.B.E.”Fertilizing for maximum yield; 2nd edition; The English
(Ref. Gibbs and Calo 1959. Plant physiologhy; 34:318-23.
(Ref.3. A .M.Smith; Manual and Fertilizers; Revised edition, Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd; 1961; 275pp)
( Ref. 4 .A .M.Smith; Manual and Fertilizers; Revised edition, Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd; 1961; 275pp)Language Book society, 1975, 297p).
(Ref:5, Black.C.A.1954.Soil –plant relationship (Monographs) Iowa State College,
(Ref.5. Meyer and Storck (1927) Holt and Fisher (19600-, Meyer and Storck (1027) Zeischr, Pfanzenernahr. Dung Bodenk, 10 A. 329-47
Holt, E.C and Fisher, F.L.(1960) Agron.J 52:593-6
( Ref.6. Gibbs and Calo 1959. Plant
(Ref.6. Hasegawa; 1962) Nishikwa, k.I; Kogasaki; M and Suzuki, S. (1962) Sci. Rept; Hygo Univ. Agr. Ser. Agr; 5(2) :74-6ulletin 219. Cornell cooperative extension; (Ref.7. Higging; 1943; Walton, G.P.and Skinner j.J.(1943) Georgia Agri. Exp. Sta. Bull. 226p)3p)
( Ref.7. Higging; 1943; Walton, G.P.and Skinner j.J.(1943) Georgia Agri. Exp. Sta. Bull. 226p)
( Ref.8 .T.K.Bose; S.K.Mitra; M.K.Sadhu, mineral nutrion of fruit crops . Naya Prokash, Calculta six.1988; 773P)
(Ref. 8 Gartner, 1969, Queenst. J. Agric.Anim.Sci; 26:365-72.)
(Ref.9. Davey and Papavizas 1960.Phytopathology, 50: 522-5. This way the decompostion of organic matter led to high soil CO2 concentration to which the strains (Ref.9 Gartner, 1969, Queenst. J. Agric.Anim.Sci; 26:365-72.)f R.Solani were susceptibale )
(Ref:9, Black.C.A.1954.Soil –plant relationship (Monographs) Iowa State College, Ames.
(Ref.9. Davey and Papavizas 1960.Phytopathology, 50: 522-5.
(Ref.10. Bould, C.1963.Mineral nutrition of plant in soils. In: plant physiology. A Tretise, V3, chap 1, part 1F.C.Steward. Ed.Academic Press, new york. )
(Ref.10. Bould, C.1963.Mineral nutrition of plant in soils. In: plant physiology. A Tretise, V3, chap 1, part 1F.C.Steward. Ed.Academic Press, new york. )
( Ref.11) G.S. Nijjar; Nutrition of fruit trees, Kalyani publisher , New Delhi, 1982, 320p ) ( Ref: Dr.G.W.Cooke .C.B.E.”Fertilizing for maximum yield; 2nd edition; The English Language Book society, 1975, 297p)
( Ref. 12: D.A.Koren, Kov; Nitrogen fertilizers, Oxonian Press .Pvt.Ltd, 1983,309p.)
(Ref..14. Gartner, 1969, Queenst. J. Agric.Anim.Sci; 26:365-72.)

Author: Farzana Panhwar (Mrs)
Address: 157-C, Unit No.2, Latifabad, Hyderabad
(Sindh), Pakistan.
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